Choose from powder formulations of Tris, SDS, SSC, and PBS to create commonly used buffers for experiments involving protein and DNA samples. Tris-based buffers have a broad utility due to their buffering range (pH 7.0 to 9.0) and compatibility with many proteins and enzymes. PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) is commonly used for protein research studies; it helps to maintain pH and provides an environment that is isotonic to most cells. SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is a strong denaturing detergent that is most often used in SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments to separate proteins based on molecular weight. Saline-sodium citrate (SSC) buffer is widely used in blotting/hybridization blotting applications for washing, and to control stringency for washing steps in protocols.